Galle is a city with ancient Galle fort situated on the southwestern tip of Sri Lanka, 119 km from Colombo. Galle is the capital city of Southern Province of Sri Lanka and it lies in Galle District. Galle was known as Gimhathiththa (although Iban Batuta in the 14th century refers to it as Qali before the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century, when it was the main port on the island. Galle reached the height of its development in the 18th century, during the Dutch colonial period. The major river is Gin River (Gin Ganga) which starts from Gongala Kanda and passing villages such as Neluwa, Nagoda, Baddegama, Thelikada, and Wakwella, reaches the sea at Ginthota. In Wakwella over the river there is Wakwella Bridge, which is the longest bridge in Sri Lanka.
Galle offers a unique opportunity to create a visible demonstration of the conservation of its inheritance. Galle is also an exciting, internationally famous visitor destination. Rumassala in Unawatuna is a large mound-like hill, which forms the eastern protective barrier to the Galle harbor. Local tradition associates this hill with some events of the Ramayana.
The “modern” history of Galle starts in 1505, when the first Portuguese ship, under Lourenço de Almeida was driven there by a storm. However, the people of the city refused to let the Portuguese enter it, so the Portuguese took it by force. In 1640, the Portuguese had to surrender to the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch built the present Fort in the year 1663. They built a fortified wall, using solid granite, and built three bastions, known as “Sun”, “Moon” and “Star”. After the British took over the country from the Dutch in the year 1796, they preserved the Fort unchanged, and used it as the administrative center of Galle.
Galle features a tropical rain forest climate. The city has no true dry season, though it is noticeably drier in the months of January and February. As is commonplace with many cities with this type of climate, temperatures show little variation throughout the course of the year. Average temperatures hovers at around 32 degrees Celsius throughout the year.